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Published By Lankelma

Lankelma is the foremost contractor for onshore in-situ soil testing in the UK. An acknowledged specialist in CPT, Lankelma also offers a worldwide consultancy and training service.

A.P. van den Berg develops, designs and manufactures geotechnical and environmental soil investigation equipment for onshore and offshore applications. Specialists in CPT systems and equipment.


Gardline Geosciences offers worldwide marine geotechnics, in-house consutancy and services with marine investigations ranging from nearshore to full ocean depth (down to 3000m).

About the Author

Hans Brouwer studied civil engineering at Delft University in The Netherlands. He has worked as a part-time lecturer at Amsterdam Polytechnic and was senior partner in a structural engineering consultancy. He has written a standard textbook in Dutch about the design of building foundations. He now lives in England where he writes technical textbooks in English, hopefully to reach a bigger readership.

Chapter 8

Push technology in the rail environment


        INVESTIGATIONS   8.3 
Investigation in the railway environment can be divided into three
different areas.
Track bed Cone penetration tests can be used to carry out track
bed investigations. A CPT can tell the thickness and quality of the
ballast and sub-grade. It can be used in conjunction with GPR to help
correlate data.
Embankments CPTs are mostly suited to embankment investigation.
Due to the material that embankments are made up of, they are ideal
for CPTs. There is a range of rigs for testing through the 4-foot ballast
on an embankment, on the slope of the embankment or cutting, and at
the toe.

Tunnels Working in tunnels can be difficult depending on the direction
from which the testing is being carried out. The direction of the testing
depends on the thickness of the walls (pre-coring will be needed) and if
there is any drainage in the base of the tunnel. Tests can be carried out
in any direction if a reaction force can be gained. 
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